When the great innovation appears, it will almost certainly be in muddled, incomplete and confusing form. ...For any speculation which does not at first glance look crazy, there is no hope. — Freeman Dyson (1)

Author | Copyright About This Website Navigation | What'sNEW

The purpose of this website is to serve as a resource about Cosmic Ancestry, and to help establish it as a possible scientific account of the emergence and development of life on Earth. (In it, darwinian natural selection has a role but cannot produce sustained macroevolutionary progress or the origin of life.) The website is operated pro bono, without any revenue or profit motive.
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This website was originally conceived as a book, completed in draft in 1995. It was revised and placed on the Internet in May 1996, and is updated almost daily. Significant updates are posted with references on the main What'sNEW page and crosslinked with relevant interior pages. All What'sNEW articles are archived and indexed. Minor updates, mostly links to relevant text icon print or blue ball web articles, are posted in the "What'sNEW" sections of the topic-appropriate pages, where all updates are listed in reverse chronological order. (Besides What'sNEW, all but the first three pages following "Can The Theory be Tested?" are updates.)

Please email your comments about Cosmic Ancestry, inquiries or alerts about resources, and other suggestions to the author, following the link at the bottom of most webpages. We receive many useful suggestions from website visitors. Some emails may be posted to "Replies" if the sender consents; these are also archived and indexed.


Thank you. Thank you very much. — Elvis Presley (2)

This website is funded by the Astrobiology Research Trust. It was conceived as a book, and executed with help from many people. Three deserve special mention:
Thanks Chandra Wickramasinghe gave me valuable technical advice, hard-to-find resources, and many hours of his time and hospitality.
Thanks Fred Hoyle kindly reviewed the manuscript of the unpublished book, co-authored with Chandra a Foreword, and granted the interview excerpted on this website.
Thanks Barbara Mason assisted tirelessly with research, transcribing, and proofreading.

This site has been specially recognized by

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The Author

Brig Klyce has actively studied evolution, the origin of life, and panspermia since 1980. In 1995 this activity became his primary occupation. Today he conducts, promotes and publicizes research pertaining to the strong version of panspermia, which he would like to link with Gaia, calling the synthesis Cosmic Ancestry. He has given many lectures and interviews, and presented papers on Cosmic Ancestry at colleges, universities and science conferences from Ames Research Center to Amsterdam. In 2002, Brig established the
Astrobiology Research Trust to provide financial support for basic scientific research in astrobiology and closely related fields.

Brig attended Princeton University and received a Bachelor of Architecture degree from the University of Tennessee in 1975. He retired from the textile rental industry in 1995. Brig and Ellen Cooper Klyce have a daughter, Polly, and a son, Walter.

Brig Klyce
photo by Peter Fulton
Brig Klyce
Astrobiology Research Trust
168 Grove Park Circle
Memphis, TN 38117
Brig Klyce
photo by Murray Riss

Publications in Print & Online

NC Wickramasinghe, EJ Steele, RM Gorczynski et al., "On The Fragility of Empires and Paradigms" [2-pg pdf], doi:10.37421/Virol Curr Res.2020.4.112, 15 Apr 2020.
Ted Steele, Chandra Wickramasinghe et al., "Cause of Cambrian Explosion - Terrestrial or Cosmic?" [OA paper | alt. url], Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology, corrected proof online 13 Mar 2018.
blue ball Brig Klyce, "Panspermia and Evolution by HGT" [12-min. video], University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka, 22 Aug 2015 (posted on YouTube 28 Aug 2016).
Brig Klyce, "GTOs and HGT: Genes are older than expected and can be installed by horizontal gene transfer, especially with help from viruses" [7-page doc | SPIE abstract], Paper No. 8521-11, Instruments, Methods, and Missions for Astrobiology XV [Table of Contents], SPIE, San Diego CA, 27 Sep (delivered 14 Aug) 2012.
Brig Klyce and Chandra Wickramasinghe, "Creationism, Neo-Darwinism and Panspermia" [7-page pdf | local pdf], Journal of Cosmology, online 11 Oct 2011.
Brig Klyce, "Panspermia and Horizontal Gene Transfer" [abstract | 5-page pdf], doi:10.1117/12.832049, Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 7441, "Astrobiology XII: Instruments, Methods, and Missions," [Table of Contents], Richard B. Hoover, Gilbert V. Levin, Alexei Y. Rozanov, Kurt D. Retherford, eds., 11 Sep (conference 4-6 Aug) 2009.
Brig Klyce: 18-minute interview about the Evolution Prize with Tom Barbalet of biota.org: [mp3 | iTunes podcast: scroll to 9/2/2006 | local link], 2 Sep 2006.
Elena V. Pikuta, Richard B. Hoover, Brig Klyce, Paul C. W. Davies and Pauline Davies, "Bacterial utilization of L-sugars and D-amino acids" [abstract | alternate], doi:10.1117/12.690434, Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 6309, "Instruments, Methods, and Missions for Astrobiology IX," [Table of Contents], Richard B. Hoover, Gilbert V. Levin, Alexei Y. Rozanov, eds., 5 Sep (conference presentation 14 Aug) 2006.
Brig Klyce, "The Evolution Prize: Is Open-Ended Evolutionary Innovation in a Closed System Possible?" [2-page pdf]; 1-page version, p 123, ALife X: Workshop Proceedings, Indiana University, Bloomington IN, 3-7 Jun 2006.
Max K. Wallis, N. Chandra Wickramasinghe, Shirwan Al-Mufti, Norimune Miyake, Milton Wainwright and Brig Klyce, "Search For Microbiology In Cryo-genically Collected Stratospheric Particles From Space" [abstract.doc], p 17, International Journal of Astrobiology, Supplement 2004: "Abstracts from the Astrobiology Science Conference 2004" [link], NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field CA, 28 March - 1 April 2004.
Brig Klyce and Chandra Wickramasinghe, "Creationism versus Darwinism: A Third Alternative" [pdf: 776 Kb], p 543-548, Darwinism, Design, and Public Education, John Angus Campbell and Stephen C. Meyer, eds., ISBN 0-87013-675-5, Michigan State University Press, 2003.
Thomas Ray and Brig Klyce, "Comparing Standard Darwinism and Strong Panspermia: A Bioinformatic Analysis of Human, Mouse and Intervening Genomes" [print.gif:140kb | CD.gif:44kb | full poster.htm], p 172, Proceedings of the Astrobiology Science Conference 2002, April 7-11, 2002, at Ames Research Center, Mountain View CA.
Brig Klyce, "Panspermia Asks New Questions" [abstract | html], doi:10.1117/12.435366, p 11-14, The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) in the Optical Spectrum - Conference 22-24 January 2001, San Jose CA: SPIE Proceedings-4273, Stuart Kingsley and Ragbir Bhathal, eds.
Brig Klyce, "Is Sustained Macroevolutionary Progress Possible?" [abstract.jpg], p 402, Proceedings of the First Astrobiology Science Conference, April 3-5, 2000, at Ames Research Center, Mountain View CA [html abstract | full poster].
Brig Klyce, "Cosmic Ancestry" [gif], IAA-99-IAA.8.2.04, 50th International Astronautical Congress, 4-8 Oct 1999 / Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Brig Klyce, "In Real or Artificial Life, Is Evolutionary Progress in a Closed System Possible?" [pdf], p 1444 v 2, Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference Orlando FL, 13-17 July 1999, W. Banzhaf et al., eds., Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, San Francisco, 1999.
N.C. Wickramasinghe, F. Hoyle and Brig Klyce, "Panspermia in perspective" [abstract], doi:10.1117/12.319845, p 306, Instruments, Methods and Missions for Astrobiology - Conference 20-22 July 1998, San Diego CA: SPIE Proceedings-3441, Richard Hoover, ed.


Cosmic Ancestry is published by the Astrobiology Research Trust
(3). None of its contents may be copied in any medium without an acknowledgment that includes an obvious hypertext link or instructions to find this website. No portion greater than 100 words or one thumbnail image, nor any portion to be used for any commercial purpose, may be copied without express permission from the Astrobiology Research Trust.

Our use of quotations and images from other sources complies with each source's own copyright terms, if known, the "fair use" rule, and our own copyright terms applied reciprocally. We are committed to responsible behavior, fairness and decency.


1. "Innovation in Physics", Scientific American, Sep 1958 [cited in] Martin Gardner, The Night is Large, 1997, p79.
2. Each highlighted number under "References" links you up from a footnote to the referenced point on the same page, like the Elvis quote above. Conversely, the link at the referenced point brings you down to the footnote. The footnote often has a link to the reference material, which may be external (on another website) or local (on this website). Most external links open in a new browser window (close to return).
3. Astrobiology Research Trust, founded 2002.

Website Navigation and down arrowhead up arrowhead left arrowhead right arrowhead blue ball text icon CA Thanks NEW + + Icons Explained

+ A colored navigation bar at the top and bottom of every page contains internal links to the "COSMIC ANCESTRY" (Home), "Quick Guide," and "Next" pages. "Brig Klyce" or "Feedback" in the navigation bar should lead to the email adress of the author of the page.
+ Major new developments are posted as articles on the What'sNEW page. All of these articles are archived, and indexed on the "Index of What'sNEW" webpage. Almost all are crosslinked with relevant interior pages, where return links are listed in the page-specific "What'sNEW" sections.
+ Minor new developments are posted in page-specific "What'sNEW" sections of ordinary pages, with a blue ball or text icon. These include, as of 1999, all new Related Websites and Related Reading items. Some webpages (Neo-Darwinism..., Can The Theory Be Tested?, Life on Mars!) have multiple, subtopic-specific What'sNEW sections.
down arrowhead up arrowhead right arrowhead left arrowhead Purple arrowheads signify internal links (within this website): down or up on the same page, or back and forth between pages, as if it were a book. These open in the same browser window (go "Back" to return.)
blue ball The Blue Ball signifies a link to a different website. External links open in a new browser window (close to return).
text icon The text icon signifies a printed work. A link to an external page, such as an [abstract], opening in a new browser window (close to return), may be included. The distinction between print and web articles was clearer when this website was first established than it is now.
The music staff signifies a (rare) link to an audio file.
CA stands for Cosmic Ancestry. (CA sometimes stands for California.)
Thanks The little valentine signifies our gratitude to someone, usually for alerting us to related news or developments.
NEW is used sparingly, to denote a newly added page, article or link.
+ The plus symbol usually indicates a (+backup link), with content that fairly duplicates the first-given link.
+ The black diamond designates a bullet point for which no other icon is appropriate.


All great truths begin as blasphemies — George Bernard Shaw

Book Reviews have a new chronological index with links, Jun 2020.
Freeman Dyson (19232020) by Frank Wilczek, Science, 15 May 2020.
Site Search now requires you to first open a search engine, 2018.
7 Nov 2010: "Site Search" is a new feature, linked from the navigation bar on most pages.
25 Nov 2008: The Cosmic Ancestry website has a new hosting company, pair.com. We hope access and response time will be better.
coverpage notice 8 Jul 2008: A What'sNEW cover page has been added to this website. Now all What'sNEW articles are immediately assigned permanent links. (Formerly, links changed when those articles aged into the Archives.)
7 Dec 2007: Use a credit card to purchase books we offer.
+ July 2007: Our old email address (bklyce@...) has been abandoned. We have a new email address (brigklyce@...) intended for humans only.
4 Jul 2007: The Cosmic Ancestry website will soon have a new web host in order to make our service more reliable and secure.
28 Oct 2005: Hurricane Wilma knocked out CA's web host in Florida for six days ending today.
20 Sep 2005: Archived What'sNEW articles about horizontal gene transfer (HGT) have been linked together for sequential viewing [textbox with details].
blue ball text icon 2005: External links will be displayed in a new browser window (close to return). This leaves our referring local webpage open, for continuity.
+ 2002: We will not link to pages that prevent you from returning to our referring page.
+ 1998: Items that would qualify as "Related Reading" and "Related Websites" on a given webpage will henceforth be posted instead in the "What'sNEW" section of that webpage. The former sections, where they appear, will not be augmented.
+ 1998: External links are no longer actively policed for expiration or changes in content.

COSMIC ANCESTRY | Quick Guide | Site Search | Next | by Brig Klyce | All Rights Reserved