Hoyle and Wickramasinghe's Analysis of Interstellar Dust
What'sNEW   |   Selected Resources

Almost always the men who achieve these fundamental inventions of a new paradigm have been either very young or very new to the field whose paradigm they change. — Thomas Kuhn (1)

The astronomer Sir Fred Hoyle was born in Bingley, Yorkshire, England on June 24, 1915. He received a master's degree from Cambridge in 1939 and was elected Fellow, St. John's College, Cambridge in the same year. He rose to become Plumian Professor of Astrophysics and Natural Philosophy in 1958. He was a leading contributor in the discovery of how the elements from lithium to iron are synthesized inside stars. In 1997 he was awarded the Crafoord Prize by the the Swedish Academy in recognition of outstanding basic research in fields not covered by the Nobel prize.

Professor N. Chandra Wickramasinghe was born in Colombo, Sri Lanka, on January 20, 1939. He studied astrophysics at Cambridge, where he was a student of Hoyle's. He received his Ph.D. in 1963 and an Sc.D. in 1973, and served on the faculty at Cambridge. He later became a Professor of Applied Mathematics and Astronomy at the University College, Cardiff, Wales. He is an expert in the use of infrared astronomy to study interstellar matter.

These two scientists did not originally set out to prove that life comes from space. They were astronomers, not biologists. They were trying to identify the contents of interstellar dust by finding something that would match its infrared signature, or extinction spectrum. When they began working on this problem in the early 1960s, the standard theory was that the spectrum could be adequately explained by graphite grains. But an imperfect match between the theoretical and actual spectra, and an implausible account of the formation of the grains pushed Hoyle and Wickramasinghe to search elsewhere. In their work and others', molecules that are more closely related to biology began to enter the picture.

In 1968, polycyclic aromatic molecules were detected in interstellar dust (4). In 1972, convincing evidence that the dust contained porphyrins was obtained (5). Then in 1974, Wickramasinghe demonstrated that there are complex organic polymers, specifically molecules of "polyformaldehyde", in space (6). These molecules are closely related to cellulose, which is very abundant in biology. By 1975, Hoyle and Wickramasinghe were convinced that organic polymers were a substantial fraction of the dust. This line of thought was considered wildly speculative at that time. Now however, the idea that organic polymers in space are abundant and may be necessary for life is well accepted. Today we often see stories about things like vinegar among the stars (7), or "buckyballs" from space as "the seeds of life" (8). To that extent the scientific paradigm for the origin of life on Earth has already shifted.

Graph of extinction spectrum of interstellar dust

But Hoyle and Wickramasinghe were not satisfied. In the middle 1970s, they turned their attention to an apparent anomaly in the spectrum. It had a low, broad "knee" centered at about 2.3 wavelengths per micrometer (the slight convexity on the slope at the left side of the graph above) (9). This spectral feature could be explained if the grains of dust were of a certain size, and translucent. After trying almost everything else first, in 1979, they looked at the spectrum for bacteria. Dried bacteria refract light as irregular hollow spheres, and their size range is appropriate. The match between the spectrum for dried bacteria (solid line) and the ones from the interstellar grains (dots, triangles and squares) was nearly perfect. Thinking without prejudice, Hoyle and Wickramasinghe concluded the grains probably were dried, frozen bacteria (10).

When [Wickramasinghe] first made this calculation... he was dumbfounded. After almost twenty years in which he had tried in vain to obtain a theoretical extinction curve closely matching the observations, using theories that permitted a considerable measure of parameter fitting, he now had a theory with no adjustable parameter, a theory which yet gave... excellent results... (11).

This finding was ridiculed at the time, is still ridiculed today, and is definitely not accepted by mainstream science. It has become common to wonder if Fred Hoyle has "gone off the deep end." But in fact, Hoyle spent ten productive years studying the implications of this finding (12). And Chandra Wickramasinghe is still working on the evidence for life from space. While exploring the vast new scientific territory they found, they have taken some wrong turns and have changed their opinions on some questions. Certain other scientists have roundly criticised them for such "inconststencies" and for sometimes having less than complete corroboration for their findings. Criticism so bitter discourages all pioneering scientific enquiry. Perhaps their work will be honored eventually.


"Phosphorus-bearing molecules PO and PN at the edge of the Galaxy," by L.A. Koelemay, K.R. Gold and L.M. Ziurys, Nature, 08 Nov; and commentary by Bob Yirka, PhysOrg.com, 13 Nov 2023. The team concludes that other possible sources will need to be investigated to determine the source of the phosphorus they found.
06 Jun 2023: Detecting these complex organic molecules at such a vast distance is game-changing....
"...Images of Nearby Galaxies Provide Clues About Star Formation," University of California San Diego via, Newswise, 15 Feb 2023. PAHs are small particles of dust. PAHs are evenly distributed throughout the ISM.
Does ice in the Universe contain the molecules making up the building blocks of life in planetary systems? University of Copenhagen via Newswise, 16 Feb 2023; re:
"An Ice Age JWST inventory of dense molecular cloud ices," by M. K. McClure et al., Nat Astron, 23 Jan 2023.
10 Feb 2023: King Charles III invests Chandra Wickramasinghe into the Order of the British Empire for his contributions to Science, Astronomy and Astrobiology.
A Short History of Panspermia from Antiquity Through the Mid-1970s by Simon Mitton, Astrobiology, 06 Dec 2022.
17 Sep 2021: ...protoplanetary disks ...are host to significant reservoirs of large organic molecules....
08 Sep 2021: NASA says complex molecules are a sign of life.
30 Aug 2021: ...biology is the most likely source for organics in space....
NASA's Webb Telescope Will Investigate the Intertwined Origins of Dust and Life, Space Telescope Science Institute (+Newswise), 18 Nov 2020.
Izaskun Jiménez-Serra et al., "...Toward the RNA-World in the Interstellar Medium..." [abstract], doi:10.1089/ast.2019.2125, Astrobiology, 17 Apr 2020.
21 Jun 2018: Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) older than the sun contain complex organics.
24 Mar 2018: Space dust from the outside surface of the International Space Station contains bacterial DNA, according to a report from Russia.
Stellar Embryos in Nearby Dwarf Galaxy Contain Surprisingly Complex Organic Molecules, The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (+Newswise), 30 Jan 2018.
12 Jan 2018: ...the organic matter originated from ...an ocean world in the early solar system, possibly Ceres.
03 Oct 2017: Methyl Chloride in a young star system 400 light-years away.
Buckyballs mysteriously show up in cold space and warp starlight, by Joshua Sokol, NewScientist, 19 Jun 2017.
Molecule Similar to Peptides Detected in Protostars, by Kerry Grens, TheScientist, 09 Jun 2017.
First Detection of Methyl Alcohol in a Planet-forming Disc, European Southern Observatory (+Newswise), 15 Jun 2016.
Marina Frontasyeva and Richard Hoover send a paper about nano-metric dust in interplanetary clouds, 16-17 Jan 2016.
Buckyballs in space solve 100-year-old riddle, Nature News, 15 Jul 2015.
26 Feb 2015: ...Complex organic molecules are abundant in the CND....
Andrew J. Westphal et al., "Evidence for interstellar origin of seven dust particles collected by the Stardust spacecraft" [abstract], doi:10.1126/science.1252496, p 786-791 v 345, Science, 15 Aug 2015.
Jamie Hamilton Wallis, "Evidence of Panspermia: From Astronomy to Meteorites" [PDF], PhD dissertation, Cardiff University, 2014. Note especially pp 4-21.
27 Sep 2014: Even more complex organic molecules have been found in space.
25 Jan 2014: Water in interplanetary dust is a byproduct of solar wind and is therefore probably ubiquitous in the solar system.
Discoveries Suggest Icy Cosmic Start for Amino Acids and DNA Ingredients, The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (+Science Daily), 28 Feb 2013.
3 Dec 2011: The data from every direction support the interstellar life and panspermia hypothesis — Chandra Wickramasinghe
Chandra Wickramasinghe, "Interstellar Extinction - A revisit" [local PDF], 22 Nov 2011.
27 Oct 2011: Theoretically, this is impossible, but observationally we can see it happening, says Professor Sun Kwok.
22 Jun 2010: "Largest molecules ever known in space found..." - email from Kenneth Miller.
22 Jun 2010: We have detected the presence of anthracene molecules in a dense cloud... about 700 light years from the Sun....
Panspermia - Life is Everywhere! ~4 minute video posted on YouTube by TheIdeasMatrix, 11 Jun 2011.
Survivability of Microorganisms and Organics in Interplanetary Space of the Solar System, Japan Geoscience Union Meeting, 23-28 May 2010.
4 Feb 2010: Chandra Wickramasinghe reviews the case for panspermia in a new article.
24 Dec 2009: ...Interstellar dust includes a substantial fraction of biomaterial in various stages of degradation....
22 Apr 2009: Two new complex organic molecules have been seen toward the center of our galaxy.
Does prebiotic material exist in space?, Physorg.com, 26 Mar 2009.
Astronomers spot cosmic dust fountain, The University of Chicago, 5 Feb 2009.
Water in the early Universe, Max Planck Society, 18 Dec 2008.
9 Dec 2008: Organic compounds can also be a by-product of life processes....
1 Dec 2008: Glycolaldehyde 26,000 light-years away has been detected by European astronomers using the IRAM radio dish array in France.
Scientists discover key molecules in the interstellar space for the formation of basic life structures, The Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), 19 Sep 2008.
29 Mar 2008: An amino-acid-like molecule has been seen in a dust cloud 25,000 lightyears away.
22 Mar 2008: Methane and water, but no carbon monoxide, can be seen in the atmosphere of an extrasolar planet 63 lightyears away.
John S. Carr and Joan R. Najita, "Organic Molecules and Water in the Planet Formation Region of Young Circumstellar Disks" [abstract], doi:10.1126/science.1153807, p 1504-1506 v 319, Science, 14 Mar 2008; and commentary:
A Solar System That Looks Like Home, by Phil Berardelli, ScienceNOW Daily News, 13 Mar 2008.
Arecibo telescope finds critical ingredients for the soup of life in a galaxy far, far away, EurekAlert!, 14 Jan 2008.
Red Dust In Planet-forming Disk May Harbor Precursors To Life, Carnegie Institution for Science, 3 Jan 2008.
L. M. Ziurys et al., "Chemical complexity in the winds of the oxygen-rich supergiant star VY Canis Majoris" [abstract], p 1094-1097 v 447, Nature, 28 Jun 2007.
S. Pizzarello et al., "The Nature and Distribution of the Organic Material in Carbonaceous Chondrites and Interplanetary Dust Particles," p625-651 in Meteorites and the Early Solar System II, Dante S. Lauretta and Harry Y. McSween, eds., The University of Arizona Press, 2006.
Organic Molecules Found in Diverse Space Places, by Ker Than, Space.com, 8 Aug 2006.
13 Mar 2006: Fire and ice — the first examined particles returned from comet Wild 2 by NASA's Stardust mission.
15 Jan 2006: Stardust landed safely.
22 Dec 2005: Building blocks of life orbiting a Sun-like star were observed by astronomers using NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope.
11 Oct 2005: Organic chemicals that play a crucial role in the chemistry of life are common in space.
8 Sep 2005: Deep inside comet Tempel 1 there are lots of organic compounds.
28 Jul 2005: Cosmic organics seen by the Spitzer Space Telescope.
2 Oct 2004: Chandra Wickramasinghe comments on sugar in space.
Sun Kwok, "The synthesis of organic and inorganic compounds in evolved stars" [abstract], p 985-991 v 430, Nature, 26 Aug 2004.
To Grow, Stars and Planets Need Space Dust... and Formaldehyde?, by Pam Frost Gorder, Ohio State University, 30 Jun 2004. "Even using our best models of interstellar chemistry, we still don’t fully understand how these molecules could have formed. Clearly, something else is going on."
New Molecules Discovered in Milky Way, by Associated Press, Los Angeles Times, 23 Jun 2004.
17 Jun 2004: Mass spectrometer on Stardust sees organic matter at comet Wild 2.
27 May 2004: Organics in planet-forming discs.
Christine Floss, "The extragalactic Universe: an alternative view" [abstract], p 1355-1358 v 303 Science, 27 Feb 2004.
Space molecules point to organic origins, New Scientist, 9 Jan 2004.
9 Jan 2004: Complex organics in interstellar dust confirmed.
2003, December 26: Infrared telescope sees hydrocarbons...
2003, October 23: The red rain of Kerala....
John S. Mathis, "Interstellar Dust and Extinction" [text], p 37-70 v 28 Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys, 1990.
Space infrared astronomy comes of age, European Space Agency, 16 Apr 2003.
Cosmic Dust, research department homepage, Washington University, St Louis MO.
Scientists get first close look at stardust, EurekAlert!, 27 Feb 2003.
Extrasolar meteors hint at distant planet formation, by Nicolle Wahl, University of Toronto, 6 Jan 2003.
2002, August 23: "Cosmic smog may have seeded life...."
2002, July 26: Glycine in space
New evidence for organic compounds in deep space, EurekAlert, 18 April 2002.
Scientists Discover Antifreeze in Space..., National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 15 April 2002.
...Vinyl Alcohol in Interstellar Space, National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 1 October 2001.
2001, February 21: Complex carbon molecules and water found in dust around distant stars.
ISO detects benzene in space, European Space Agency, 22 January 2001.
2000, November 27: Leonid meteor reveals spectral signature of bacteria?
2000, September 20: Stardust, by John Gribbin.
Pascale Ehrenfreund and ­ Steven B. Charnley, "Organic Molecules in the Interstellar Medium, Comets and Meteorites: A Voyage from Dark Clouds to the Early Earth" [abstract], doi:10.1146/annurev.astro.38.1.427, p 427-483 v 38, Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Sep 2000.
2000, July 18: ESA's infrared space telescope detects CH3 in space.
2000, June 19: Scientists Discover Sugar in Space.
2000, April 27: Most interstellar particles captured by Stardust are complex organic compounds....
Formic Acid Found toward Hot Galactic Molecular Cores — The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, July 1999.
1999, February 19: NASA says astrobiologists find clues to origin of life.
1998, December 18: Scientists in California and Germany report finding the unique signatures of an exotic form of carbon in deep space.


1. Thomas Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 2nd edition, The University of Chicago Press, 1970. p 90.
4. Bertram Donn, v 152 L129 Astrophysics J. Lett. 1968.
5. Fred M. Johnson, "Interstellar Matter II: Diffuse Interstellar Lines and Porphyrins" p 186-206 v 187 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 25 January 1972.
6. Chandra Wickramasinghe, "Polyformaldehyde polymers in interstellar space" p 462-463 v 252 n 5483 Nature. December 6, 1974.
7. John Noble Wilford, "A Whiff of Organic Stuff Is Found Between Stars" p B7 The New York Times June 11, 1996.
8. Kathy Sawyer, "The Molecules That Fell to Earth: A meteorite may have planted the seeds of life." p 38 The Washington Post Weekly Edition April 29 - May 5, 1996.
9. F. Hoyle and C. Wickramasinghe. "A Model for Interstellar Extinction" p 321-329 v 86 Astrophysics and Space Science. D. Reidel Publishing Co. 1982.
10. F. Hoyle and C. Wickramasinghe. "On the Nature of Interstellar Grains" p 77-90 v 66 Astrophysics and Space Science. 1979.
11. Fred Hoyle, Evolution From Space: The Omni Lecture. Enslow Publishers. 1982. p 70.
12. Fred Hoyle, Home is Where the Wind Blows. University Science Books. 1994. p 395.

Hoyle and Wickramasinghe: Selected Resources
See also
Archive of Key Historical Publications at BCAB & this list of papers and books.doc

       by Hoyle and Wickramasinghe:
Lifecloud: The Origin of Life in the Universe. Harper and Row 1978.
Diseases from Space. J.M. Dent and Sons Ltd. 1979. NEW Diseases from Outer Space: retitled and updated with a Foreword by Edward J. Steele, published by World Scientific, Sep 2020.
Space Travellers: The Bringers of Life, University College Cardiff Press, 1981. 9Mb local PDF.
Evolution from Space: A Theory of Cosmic Creationism. Simon and Schuster, Inc. 1981.
with S. Al-Mufti, "Organo-Siliceous Molecules and the Infrared Spectrum of the Trapezium Nebula", Astrophys. Space Sci., v86, 63H, 1982. 500Kb local PDF.
Proofs that Life is Cosmic. Memoirs of the Institute of Fundamental Studies, Sri Lanka, No. 1. December 1982. 21Mb PDF from BCAB | 9Mb local PDF. NEW Proofs that Life is Cosmic is updated with a new introduction by Chandra Wickramasinghe, published by World Scientific, ISBN: 978-981-3233-12-6, Dec 2017.
From Grains to Bacteria. University College Cardiff Press. 1984.
Living Comets. University College Cardiff Press. 1985. 7Mb local PDF.
with John Watkins, Viruses from Space. University College Cardiff Press. 1986. 5Mb local PDF.
Cosmic Life-Force. J.M. Dent and Sons, Ltd. 1988.
"Sunspots and influenza" p 304 v 343 Nature. 25 January 1990.
"The Universe and Life: Deductions from the Weak Anthropic Principle." Atmospheric and Space Science Preprint No. 10, Weston Preprint Series. School of Mathematics, Cardiff. March 1991.
The Theory of Cosmic Grains. The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. 1991.
Our Place in the Cosmos. J.M. Dent Ltd. 1993.
"Biofluorescence and the Extended Red Emission in Astrophysical Sources" p 343-347 v 235 Astrophysics and Space Science. 1996.
Life on Mars? The case for a cosmic heritage? Bristol, Clinical Press. 1997.
Astronomical Origins of Life: Steps Towards Panspermia, 324p, ISBN 0-7923-6081-8, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000 [2017 edition].

       by Fred Hoyle:
The Nature of the Universe. Harper and Row, Publishers, Inc. 1950.
Evolution From Space (The Omni Lecture) and Other Papers on the Origin of Life. Hillside, New Jersey: Enslow Publishers 1982.
The Intelligent Universe: A New View of Creation and Evolution. London: Michael Joseph Limited 1983. [Summary and review by Gert Korthof, 1999, 2006 | local review, 2024.]
Mathematics of Evolution, $18, 160p, ISBN 0-9669934-0-3, Memphis: Acorn Enterprises LLC, 1999.
The Origin of the Universe and the Origin of Religion. Moyer Bell 1993.
Home Is Where the Wind Blows: Chapters from a Cosmologist's Life. University Science Books 1994.

       with others and more:
H.C. Arp, G. Burbidge, F. Hoyle, J.V. Narlikar and N.C. Wickramasinghe, "The extragalactic Universe: an alternative view" PDF, p 807-812 v 346 Nature. 30 August 1990.
Richard B. Hoover, Fred Hoyle, Chandra Wickramasinghe, Miriam J. Hoover and S. Al-Mufti, "Diatoms on Earth, Comets, Europa, and in Interstellar Space," PDF: 5Mb, p 19-45 v 35, Earth Moon and Planets, D. Reidel Publishing Company, 1986.
Fred Hoyle; Geoffrey Burbidge and Jayant V. Narlikar, A Different Approach to Cosmology: from a Static Universe through the Big Bang towards Reality [local review with links], Cambridge University Press, April 2000.
M. K. Wallis and N. C. Wickramasinghe, "Comet Halley's Remote Outburst" p 228-230 v 112 The Observatory. 1992.
Chandra Wickramasinghe, "The long road to panspermia," p 57-60 v 16 Astronomy Now, Apr 2002.
Chandra Wickramasinghe, "Panspermia according to Hoyle" [preview], doi:10.1023/A:1025437920710, p 535-538 v 285, Astrophysics and Space Science, Jul 2003.
N.C. Wickramasinghe and F. Hoyle, "Very Small Dust Grains (VSDP's) in Comet C/1996 B2 (Hyakutake)" submitted to Astrophysics and Space Science, May 1996.
Chandra Wickramasinghe, "Evolution of Life: A Cosmic Perspective" [html], an ActionBioscience.org original paper, May 2001.
Nalin C. Wickramasinghe, Fred Hoyle, Shirwan Al-Mufti and Daryl H. Wallis, "Infrared signatures of prebiology – or biology?" p 61-76, Astronomical and Biochemical Origins and the Search for Life in the Universe, Cristiano Batalli Cosmovici, Stuart Bowyer and Dan Werthimer, eds. Editrice Compositori 1997.
N.C. Wickramasinghe, F. Hoyle and B. Klyce, "Panspermia in perspective" [abstract | alternate], Instruments, Methods, and Missions for Astrobiology, Richard B. Hoover, Editor, Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 3441, p 306-315 (1998).
Brig Klyce and Chandra Wickramasinghe, "Creationism versus Darwinism: A Third Alternative" [pdf: 776 Kb], p 543-548, Darwinism, Design, and Public Education, John Angus Campbell and Stephen C. Meyer, eds., ISBN 0-87013-675-5, Michigan State University Press, 2003.
N.C. Wickramasinghe, F. Hoyle and D. Lloyd, "Eruptions of Comet Hale-Bopp at 6.5AU" p 161-165 v 240 Astrophysics and Space Science. 1996.
N.C. Wickramasinghe, F. Hoyle and D.H. Wallis, "Spectroscopic evidence for panspermia" [abstract], in Instruments, Methods, and Missions for the Investigation of Extraterrestrial Microorganisms, Richard B. Hoover, Editor, Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 3111, p 282-295 (1997).
N.C. Wickramasinghe, J. Wallis and D.H. Wallis, "Panspermia: Evidence from Astronomy to Meteorites" [abstract], doi:10.1142/S0217732313300097, Modern Physics Letters A, 19 Apr 2013.

COSMIC ANCESTRY | Quick Guide | Next | by Brig Klyce | All Rights Reserved